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Q1. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

What address is a feasible successor? 

A. 172.16.4.0 

B. 10.1.4.4 

C. 10.1.2.2 

D. 172.16.3.0 

Answer: C Explanation: 

The feasible condition states: 

“To qualify as a feasible successor, a router must have an AD less than the FD of the current successor route”. 

In this case, we see 10.1.2.2 shows an AD less than the current successor of 10.1.4.4 


Q2. - (Topic 2) 

Which parameter or parameters are used to calculate OSPF cost in Cisco routers? 

A. Bandwidth 

B. Bandwidth and Delay 

C. Bandwidth, Delay, and MTU 

D. Bandwidth, MTU, Reliability, Delay, and Load 

Answer:

Explanation: 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094e9e.sht ml#t6 

OSPF Cost 

The cost (also called metric) of an interface in OSPF is an indication of the overhead required to send packets across a certain interface. The cost of an interface is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of that interface. A higher bandwidth indicates a lower cost. There is more overhead (higher cost) and time delays involved in crossing a 56k serial line than crossing a 10M Ethernet line. The formula used to calculate the cost is: Cost= 10000 0000/bandwidth in bps 

For example, it will cost 10 EXP8/10 EXP7 = 10 to cross a 10M Ethernet line and will cost 10 EXP8/1544000 =64 to cross a T1 line. By default, the cost of an interface is calculated based on the bandwidth; you can force the cost of an interface with the ip ospf cost <value> interface sub configuration mode command. 


Q3. - (Topic 2) 

Which two statements describe the process identifier that is used in the command to configure OSPF on a router? (Choose two.) 

Router(config)# router ospf 1 

A. All OSPF routers in an area must have the same process ID. 

B. Only one process number can be used on the same router. 

C. Different process identifiers can be used to run multiple OSPF processes 

D. The process number can be any number from 1 to 65,535. 

E. Hello packets are sent to each neighbor to determine the processor identifier. 

Answer: C,D 

Explanation: 

The areas can be any number from 0 to 4.2 billion and 1 to 65,535 for the Process ID. The process ID is the ID of the OSPF process to which the interface belongs. The process ID is local to the router, and two OSPF neighboring routers can have different OSPF process IDs. (This is not true of Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol [EIGRP], in which the routers need to be in the same autonomous system). Cisco IOS Software can run multiple OSPF processes on the same router, and the process ID merely distinguishes one process from the other. The process ID should be a positive integer. 


Q4. - (Topic 3) 

What occurs on a Frame Relay network when the CIR is exceeded? 

A. All TCP traffic is marked discard eligible. 

B. All UDP traffic is marked discard eligible and a BECN is sent. 

C. All TCP traffic is marked discard eligible and a BECN is sent. 

D. All traffic exceeding the CIR is marked discard eligible. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Committed information rate (CIR): The minimum guaranteed data transfer rate agreed to by the Frame Relay switch. Frames that are sent in excess of the CIR are marked as discard eligible (DE) which means they can be dropped if the congestion occurs within the Frame Relay network. Note: In the Frame Relay frame format, there is a bit called Discard eligible (DE) bit that is used to identify frames that are first to be dropped when the CIR is exceeded. 


Q5. - (Topic 3) 

Which Layer 2 protocol encapsulation type supports synchronous and asynchronous circuits and has built-in security mechanisms? 

A. HDLC 

B. PPP 

C. X.25 

D. Frame Relay 

Answer:

Explanation: 

High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) - HDLC is the default encapsulation type on point-to-point, dedicated links, and circuit-switched connections. It is used typically when communicating between two Cisco devices. It is a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) - Provides router-to-router and host-to network connections over synchronous and asynchronous circuits. PPP was designed to work with several network layer protocols, such as IP, and IPX. PPP also has built in security mechanisms such as PAP and CHAP X.25/Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB) - ITU-T standard that defines how connections between DTE and DCE are maintained for remote terminal access and computer communications in public data networks. X.25 specifies LAPB, a data line layer protocol. X.25 is a predecessor to Frame Relay. Frame Relay - Industry standard, switched data link layer protocol that handles multiple virtual circuits. It is a next-generation to X.25 that is streamlined to eliminate some of the time-consuming processes (such as error correction and flow control) that were employed in X.25. 


Q6. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Given the output shown from this Cisco Catalyst 2950, what is the reason that interface FastEthernet 0/10 is not the root port for VLAN 2? 

A. This switch has more than one interface connected to the root network segment in VLAN 2. 

B. This switch is running RSTP while the elected designated switch is running 802.1d Spanning Tree. 

C. This switch interface has a higher path cost to the root bridge than another in the topology. 

D. This switch has a lower bridge ID for VLAN 2 than the elected designated switch. 

Answer:

Explanation: These four parameters are examined in order to make root bridge , root port , designated port. Other switch has lowest Sending Bridge ID or Sending Port ID so vlan 2 is not the root port. 

1. A lower Root Bridge ID2. A lower path cost to the Root3. A lower Sending Bridge ID4. A lower Sending Port ID 


Q7. - (Topic 2) 

What are two drawbacks of implementing a link-state routing protocol? (Choose two.) 

A. the sequencing and acknowledgment of link-state packets B. the requirement for a hierarchical IP addressing scheme for optimal functionality 

C. the high volume of link-state advertisements in a converged network 

D. the high demand on router resources to run the link-state routing algorithm 

E. the large size of the topology table listing all advertised routes in the converged network 

Answer: B,D 

Explanation: 

Link State routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS, converge more quickly than their distance vector routing protocols such as RIPv1, RIPv2, EIGRP and so on, through the use of flooding and triggered updates. In link state protocols, changes are flooded immediately and computed in parallel. Triggered updates improve convergence time by requiring routers to send an update message immediately upon learning of a route change. These updates are triggered by some event, such as a new link becoming available oor an existing link failing. The main drawbacks to link state routing protocols are the amount of CPU overhead involved in calculating route changes and memory resources that are required to store neighbor tables, route tables and a complete topology table. http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=24090&seqNum=4 


Q8. - (Topic 3) 

Which two options are valid WAN connectivity methods? (Choose two.) 

A. PPP 

B. WAP 

C. DSL 

D. L2TPv3 

E. Ethernet 

Answer: A,C 

Explanation: 

On each WAN connection, data is encapsulated into frames before itcrosses the WAN link. The following are typical WAN protocols:1. High-level Data Link Control (HDLC): The Cisco default encapsulation type onpoint-to-point connections, dedicated links, and circuit-switches connections.2. PPP: Provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over synchronous andasynchronous circuits. PPP was designed to work with several network layer protocols,including IP.3. Frame-relay: A successor to X.25. This protocol is an industry-standard, switchesdata-link layer protocol that handles multiple virtual circuits 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide_area_network 


Q9. - (Topic 1) 

Which three statements are typical characteristics of VLAN arrangements? (Choose three.) 

A. A new switch has no VLANs configured. 

B. Connectivity between VLANs requires a Layer 3 device. 

C. VLANs typically decrease the number of collision domains. 

D. Each VLAN uses a separate address space. 

E. A switch maintains a separate bridging table for each VLAN. 

F. VLANs cannot span multiple switches. 

Answer: B,D,E 

Explanation: 

By default, all ports on a new switch belong to VLAN 1 (default & native VLAN). There are also some well-known VLANs (for example: VLAN 1002 for fddi-default; VLAN 1003 for token-ring…) configured by default -> A is not correct. To communicate between two different VLANs we need to use a Layer 3 device like router or Layer 3 switch -> B is correct. VLANs don’t affect the number of collision domains, they are the same -> C is not correct. Typically, VLANs increase the number of broadcast domains.We must use a different network (or sub-network) for each VLAN. For example we can use 192.168.1.0/24 for VLAN 1, 192.168.2.0/24 for VLAN 2 -> D is correct. A switch maintains a separate bridging table for each VLAN so that it can send frame to 

ports on the same VLAN only. For example, if a PC in VLAN 2 sends a frame then the 

switch look-ups its bridging table and only sends frame out of its ports which belong to 

VLAN 2 (it also sends this frame on trunk ports) -> E is correct. 

We can use multiple switches to expand VLAN -> F is not correct. 


Q10. - (Topic 3) 

Which feature does PPP use to encapsulate multiple protocols? 

A. NCP 

B. LCP 

C. IPCP 

D. IPXP 

Answer:

Explanation: 

PPP permits multiple network layer protocols to operate on the same communication link. For every network layer protocol used, a separate Network Control Protocol (NCP) is provided in order to encapsulate and negotiate options for the multiple network layer protocols. It negotiates network-layer information, e.g. network address or compression options, after the connection has been established 


Q11. - (Topic 2) 

What can cause two OSPF neighbors to be stuck in the EXSTART state? 

A. There is a low bandwidth connection between neighbors. 

B. The neighbors have different MTU settings. 

C. The OSPF interfaces are in a passive state. 

D. There is only layer one connectivity between neighbors. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Neighbors Stuck in Exstart/Exchange State The problem occurs most frequently when attempting to run OSPF between a Cisco router and another vendor's router. The problem occurs when the maximum transmission unit (MTU) settings for neighboring router interfaces don't match. If the router with the higher MTU sends a packet larger that the MTU set on the neighboring router, the neighboring router ignores the packet.0 When this problem occurs, the output of the show ip ospf neighbor command displays output similar that shown below: router-6# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 

170.170.11.7 1 EXCHANGE/ - 00:00:36 170.170.11.7 Serial2.7 router-6# router-7# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 

170.170.11.6 1 EXSTART/ - 00:00:33 170.170.11.6 Serial0.6 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/13684-12.html 


Q12. - (Topic 1) 

What are two characteristics of a switch that is configured as a VTP client? (Choose two.) 

A. If a switch that is configured to operate in client mode cannot access a VTP server, then the switch reverts to transparent mode. 

B. On switches that are configured to operate in client mode, VLANs can be created, deleted, or renamed locally. 

C. The local VLAN configuration is updated only when an update that has a higher configuration revision number is received. 

D. VTP advertisements are not forwarded to neighboring switches that are configured in VTP transparent mode. 

E. VTP client is the default VTP mode. 

F. When switches in VTP client mode are rebooted, they send a VTP advertisement request to the VTP servers. 

Answer: C,F 

Explanation: 

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) http://archive.networknewz.com/2004/0317.html 

VTP Modes Server Mode Once VTP is configured on a Cisco switch, the default mode used is Server Mode. In any given VTP management domain, at least one switch must be in Server Mode. When in Server Mode, a switch can be used to add, delete, and modify VLANs, and this information will be passed to all other switches in the VTP management domain. Client Mode When a switch is configured to use VTP Client Mode, it is simply the recipient of any VLANs added, deleted, or modified by a switch in Server Mode within the same management domain. A switch in VTP client mode cannot make any changes to VLAN information. Transparent Mode A switch in VTP Transparent Mode will pass VTP updates received by switches in Server Mode to other switches in the VTP management domain, but will not actually process the contents of these messages. When individual VLANs are added, deleted, or modified on a switch running in transparent mode, the changes are local to that particular switch only, and are not passed to other switches in the VTP management domain. 


Q13. - (Topic 3) 

In the Frame Relay network, 

which IP addresses would be assigned to the interfaces with point-to-point PVCs? 

A. DLCI 16 192.168.10.1/24 DLCI 17 192.168.10.1/24 DLCI 99 192.168.10.2/24 DLCI 28 192.168.10.3/24 

B. DLCI 16 192.168.10.1 /24 DLCI 17 192.168.11.1/24 DLCI 99 192.168.12.1/24 DLCI 28 192.168.13.1/24 

C. DLCI 16 192.168.10.1/24 DLCI 17 192.168.11.1/24 DLCI 99 192.168.10.2/24 DLCI 28 192.168.11.2/24 

D. DLCI 16 192.168.10.1/24 DLCI 17 192.168.10.2/24 DLCI 99 192.168.10.3/24 DLCI 28 192.168.10.4/24 

Answer:

Explanation: 

DLCI 16 and DLCI 19 need to act like a point-to-point link and will therefore need to be on the same network as will DLCI 17 and DLCI 28. With this information we can see that option "B" is the only option that has the corresponding DLCI's on the same network based on the ip addresses and subnetmask. Option "D" is incorrect because, this would put the same network on both interfaces of the R2 router. Option "A" is similar. 


Q14. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Which two statements are true about the loopback address that is configured on RouterB? (Choose two.) 

A. It ensures that data will be forwarded by RouterB. 

B. It provides stability for the OSPF process on RouterB. 

C. It specifies that the router ID for RouterB should be 10.0.0.1. 

D. It decreases the metric for routes that are advertised from RouterB. 

E. It indicates that RouterB should be elected the DR for the LAN. 

Answer: B,C 

Explanation: A loopback interface never comes down even if the link is broken so it provides stability for the OSPF process (for example we use that loopback interface as the router-id) - B is correct. 

The router-ID is chosen in the order below: 

The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface. If a loopback interface is not defined, the highest IP address of all active router’s physical interfaces will be chosen. 

-The loopback interface will be chosen as the router ID of RouterB - C is correct. 


Q15. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

From R1, a network administrator is able to ping the serial interface of R2 but, unable to ping any of the subnets attached to RouterB. Based on the partial outputs in the exhibit, what could be the problem? 

A. EIGRP does not support VLSM. 

B. The EIGRP network statements are incorrectly configured. 

C. The IP addressing on the serial interface of RouterA is incorrect. 

D. The routing protocol has summarized on the classful boundary. 

E. EIGRP has been configured with an invalid autonomous system number. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

CCNA - EIGRP Common Question Reference: 

http://www.orbitco-ccna-pastquestions.com/CCNA---EIGRP-Common-Question.php 

Explanation: 

If you look carefully at the R2 ip route, you will discover that the R2 does not learn any network from R1; this is because the routing protocol used here (EIGRP) performs auto summary when advertising routes to peers across a network. So in this case the address 172.17.0.0/16 is a summarized address. If the router was configured with no auto summary command, R2 LAN addresses would have been advertised and reached. 


Q16. - (Topic 2) 

When a router undergoes the exchange protocol within OSPF, in what order does it pass through each state? 

A. exstart state > loading state > exchange state > full state 

B. exstart state > exchange state > loading state > full state 

C. exstart state > full state > loading state > exchange state 

D. loading state > exchange state > full state > exstart state 

Answer:

Explanation: 

OSPF states for adjacency formation are (in order) Down, Init, Attempt, 2-way, Exstart, 

Exchange, Loading and Full. 

Reference: 

Why Are OSPF Neighbors Stuck in Exstart/Exchange State? 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f0d.shtml